• Grammar guide for Introduction Sections


Selected examples

  • For example,
  • ; for example,
  • For instance,
  • As an illustration,
  • As an example,
  • e.g. (for example)
  • i.e. (that is)
  • an example of X
  • such as X
  • , as shown in the following example:
  • In the following example,
  • We illustrate this with the following example.
  • For simplicity, we assume here that S is sufficiently smooth that structures such as a Riemannian metric can be defined on it.

    Source: Scholkopf e t al .: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, Vol. 10, No. 5, September 1999 p.1003 ©1999

    Fiber channel disks [7] available in the commodity market are an example of network attached disk, without the built-in processing power.

    Source: Akinlar and Mukherjee: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 5, No. 1, March 2003 p. 73 © 2003

    In the following example , two classification results are presented in more detail. Fig. 11 shows the index print of a typical consumer roll. The classification results are shown in Fig. 12.

    Source: Loui and Savakis: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2003 p.398 © 2003

      Note : “following” is not countable. It does not take an “S.” The words “as follows” and “in the following examples:” usually need the colon.

    Problems using “such as”

    Note that a comma is not always required before “such as.”

    “Such as” has the same meaning as “for example.”

    If you include the complete set of a group then don't use "such as.” In the following sentence, there are only three methods possible in total so they are not “examples.”

    X: There are three methods such as A, B, and C.


    There are three methods: A, B, and C.
    There are a number of methods that are commonly used such a s A, B, and C.
    There are a number of methods used including A, B, and C.

    The main methods include A, B, and C. 

    The most widely used methods are the following: A,B, and C.

    Negative openings

    Sentences indicating missing areas, or “gaps” in research in the field usually start with an unusual structure. There is no article in front of the noun. This is one time when you don’t have to worry about articles! In fact, you shouldn’t use them if you are indicating a lack of research. There is an important difference in meaning between

    1. There are few computers (not much, not enough).
    2. There are a few computers (some, maybe enough).
    Source: (Swales and Feak, 2004, p. 258)

    Instead, use Little/Few/No/None of these before a noun.


    Surprisingly, there is little evidence that such approaches are more accurate …

    However, no study has combined the methods effectively …

    None of the studies examined the role of ….

    Few studies, however, have examined the effects of …, and none, to our knowledge, have compared …