Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::get() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 78

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 111

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::getLibrary() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 115

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 131

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 264

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::getTranslate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method User::checkUserForeverCookie() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/user.php on line 4

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/request.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 111

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::getLibrary() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 115

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 131

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/request.php on line 95

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::set() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/request.php on line 99

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 95

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::getLibrary() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 101

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/collection_version.php on line 43

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/maintenance_mode_check.php on line 5

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 259

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::exists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 212

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsProxy::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 218

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::exists() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 69

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 536

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 111

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::getLibrary() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 115

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 131

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 540

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 565

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/helpers/date.php on line 22

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::set() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 614

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 95

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::getLibrary() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 101

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::add() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 221

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 52

Strict Standards: Non-static method CollectionVersion::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/collection.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::exists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 212

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsProxy::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 218

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::add() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 221

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 52

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/startup/process.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 248

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 173

Strict Standards: Non-static method View::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 245

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::controller() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/view.php on line 599

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::pageTypeControllerPath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 376

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 328

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::get() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/collection_types.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 111

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::getLibrary() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 115

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 131

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/collection_types.php on line 40

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::set() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/collection_types.php on line 52

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 95

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::getLibrary() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 101

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/controller.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 248

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/package.php:78) in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/view.php on line 764

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::element() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/packages/theme_destyle/themes/destyle/elements/header.php on line 5

Strict Standards: Non-static method View::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/page.php on line 135
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Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/elements/header_required.php on line 61

Strict Standards: Non-static method View::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/helpers/html.php on line 40

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/elements/header_required.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::element() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/elements/header_required.php on line 79

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/elements/page_controls_header.php on line 3

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/elements/page_controls_header.php on line 5

Strict Standards: Non-static method View::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/controller.php on line 429

Strict Standards: Non-static method View::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/area.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/area.php on line 121

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 111

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::key() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/libraries/cache.php on line 112

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::exists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 212

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsProxy::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/p327318r/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 218

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UNDER CONSTRUCTION

 

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some of the most frequent questions I receive from Korean and International graduate students in my workshops and classes.

 

Q. I am worried about criticizing the research of well-known professors in my field. How can I do this politely?

A. First, consider your audience. There is a tendency for direct criticism of previous research in articles written in North America in particular, but a tendency toward reluctance to directly criticize in many Asian countries. See the guide to science and engineering writing Chap. 6 on introduction writing for specific grammar and style advice on this important topic.

 

Q. How can I use a source that I did not read and found in another source in my own writing?

In science writing, you should always go back to the original source. In social sciences, it can be difficult to get access to online articles and especially books. I have this problem every week.

Try to minimize the number of references you use without consulting the original book. Perhaps only once per paper. However, if you have no choice, then if you are using APA style you can cite the original like this:

http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/05/secondary-sources-aka-how-to-cite-a-source-you-found-in-another-source.html

 

Q. Do I need a second comma in a list of three items or not in research writing?

 

You don't need one, but it is always a good idea as in some cases there may be confusion. However, you must be consistent throughout the paper, a basic rule of any style.


Please email suggestions for questions to Adam Turner at hanyangwritingcenter{at}gmail.com


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